Posts Tagged ‘University of Tokyo’

Prep schools succumbing to more than economic reality

Monday, September 1st, 2014

In recent weeks the yobiko Yoyogi Seminar announced that it would be closing 20 of its 27 schools nationwide by March of next year. The reason is clear and has been for years: enrollment is dropping with no bottom in sight.

Yoyogi Seminar in Tsudanuma, Chiba Prefecture, which is one of the branches scheduled to close

Yoyogi Seminar in Tsudanuma, Chiba Prefecture, one of the branches scheduled to close

The term “yobiko” is sometimes translated as “cram school” and sometimes as “prep school,” and so they tend to be mixed up with juku, another education-related term translated as “cram school.” Practically speaking there is no real difference, since both forms of enterprise prepare students to take entrance tests for higher institutions of learning. But juku tend to be associated with elementary school and junior high school students, while yobiko are more often attended by high school students who want to get into name universities.

Just as often they are used by high school graduates who are doing the same. Since these grads are not attending a for-credit school at the time, they are referred to as ronin, the word that described masterless samurai in the past. And in a sense it is the loss of ronin that made Yoyogi Seminar realize its future was in jeopardy. This past spring, according to the education ministry, 80,000 ronin took college entrance tests. In 1994, the number was 280,000.

The obvious reason for the loss of ronin is that the so-called “narrow gate” for entering universities has widened over the years. As the birthrate continues to remain low the number of available students has dwindled, and at the same time the number of universities has actually increased, from 552 20 years ago to 781 as of the beginning of this year. Schools, especially those lower on the prestige scale, are desperate for paying students and thus have eased requirements for admission. Some don’t even require tests any more, but accept recommendations or school performance records. And without the entrance testing system most yobiko have no reason to exist.

CONTINUE READING about cram schools and ronin →

The widening income gap is affecting higher education

Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

Students from lower income households have always been able to turn to public institutions of higher learning to make their dreams come true. Public universities, whether national, prefectural or municipal, offered high quality education for much less money. However, a recent survey by a research group at the University of Tokyo has found that the well-publicized widening income gap is now being reflected in public university enrollments.

todai

University of Tokyo

The survey received 1,064 responses from parents of children who graduated high school in the spring of 2012. Households where the annual income was ¥4 million or less were classified as low income, while those whose annual income was ¥10.5 or more were classified as high income.

The percentage of low income students who advanced to a public university last year was 7.4, while the percentage of high income students who did the same was 20.4. In other words, the enrollment rate for higher income students was almost three times that of lower income students.

The research group conducted the same survey in 2006. In that year, 9.1 percent of the lower income students went on to public universities while 11.9 percent of higher income students did, a negligible difference. At the same time the ratio of lower income to higher income students who went on to private universities hasn’t changed significantly since 2006, when the research group concluded that public universities were fulfilling their mission of providing educational opportunities for lower income students. The group can no longer draw such a conclusion.

The reason for the widening gap is that more higher income students are applying to public universities because even they feel the need to save money. Public universities have a limited number of openings for new students, and higher income students tend to do better on entrance tests because they can afford supplemental education, such as juku (cram schools), which lower income students can’t afford.

The survey also asked those parents who thought their children’s academic achievements were “high” whether or not their children actually went on to university. Among these respondents, in 2006, 67 percent of lower income students and 72.9 percent of higher income students advanced to university; while in 2012 the respective portions were 53.3 percent and 76.9 percent.

The research group has called on the education ministry to provide more financial assistance to lower income students so that they can attend and afford university. In 2011 the average annual tuition for a public university was ¥540,000 and for a private university ¥860,000.

University entrance fee system profits from unstable job market

Monday, February 28th, 2011

One of the big local news stories last weekend was the revelation that an unknown party posted questions from university entrance exams on a website while the party was actually taking the exams. Apart from the obvious question of how someone could do that and not be noticed by a proctor, the incident is further evidence of how twisted the whole entrance examination (nyugaku shiken) process has become.

Can't touch this: Entrance to University of Tokyo

Now that most of the entrance examinations are finished, the students who took them (presumably without cheating) have to wait impatiently for the results. For their parents, the wait is doubly unnerving. Because national universities are more prestigious and tend to lead to better employment opportunities, many students sit for the two examinations required to get into national schools. The first, given in mid-January, is the Joint Stage Achievement Test, colloquially referred to as the sentaa shiken (“center test,” since it’s administered by the National Center for University Entrance Examinations, yet another bureaucratic organ whose main job is to justify its own existence), a uniform exam that screens out some of the applicants. Then, in February, remaining applicants take exams for each national university they want to attend (kobetsu gakuryoku kensa). Students who are applying to private universities take only the tests for those schools.

The overlap in test-result announcements is what makes parents nervous. Many young people want to attend national universities, but they know the odds are against them: For the 2011 academic year there were 207,299 applications for 64,111 slots. Consequently, many also apply to private universities as a backup in case they don’t get into a national school. This process is known as suberi-dome, literally “prevention from sliding down.”

Continue reading about Japan's university admissions system →

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