Posts Tagged ‘Shintoism’

Heal me: Spirituality businesses redefining “religion”

Thursday, September 15th, 2011

Notes from the other side: Newspaper ad for books on spirituality

Earlier this week, Toru Saito, the leader of a yugen-gaisha (limited company) called Shinsekai (World of Gods), was arrested by the Kanagawa Prefectural Police for swindling five customers out of more than ¥13 million. Shinsekai is a so-called spirituality business (reikan shoho) that runs a chain of “salons” where people who are suffering physically or mentally can be “healed,” mainly through prayer fees or the purchase of spiritually charged objects like “power stones.” A group of lawyers representing former patrons of Shinsekai have likened the company’s business model to that of a pyramid scheme. People who come in for a consultation are charged huge sums in an ongoing manner to be cured, and when they can’t pay they are then compelled to bring in friends and acquaintances, thus creating a cycle. The salons themselves grow from this cycle and, according to the lawyers group, have to fulfill quotas assigned by Shinsekai executives. A local newspaper reports that the company, which some media are calling a “cult,” collected ¥17.5 billion from 2001 to 2007. Between 30 and 50 percent of the money went to the leadership group, with Saito, the founder, receiving a cool ¥1.5 billion.

Nice work if you can get it, and a lot of people obviously are trying. Since the Aum Shinrikyo scandal in the mid-90s, the idea of religion has been tainted in Japan, and a lot of money-making spiritual concerns that once would use the word religion if for no other reason than to qualify for tax-exampt status now shun it, prefering the term “healing” to describe the benefits of what they have to offer. Superstar fortune tellers and “aura readers” like Hiroyuki Ehara and Kazuko Hosoki epitomize this post-Aum spirituality trend, which focuses on the subject’s relationship with his or her ancestors, thus tapping into cultural beliefs associated with tenets of Buddhism and Shintoism. These two faith systems, especially Shintoism, have a close relationship with money, which represents the spiritual investment in whatever sort of outcome the subject wants to bring about. If you want a prayer to bless your house or make sure your son passes a university test, the more you pay the stronger the entreaty, though in the Western sense of “faith” it sounds more like superstition.

Continue reading about the spirituality business →

Beyond belief: Graveyard business expands

Sunday, June 6th, 2010

Dying to get in: The new graveyard at Ishihama Shrine

People are dying to get into the new graveyard at Ishihama Shrine

Several years ago the Ishihama Shrine, located in Arakawa Ward along the Sumida River, announced it would expand its graveyard, prompting protests from local residents that reflects the usual cultural queasiness about anything associated with death. In this case it was manifested in a straightforward economic concern: The local homeowners and small businesses were afraid that the cemetery might bring down their property values.

It may be a valid complaint given that the expansion was carried out for economic purposes. According to the man in charge of selling plots, his company saw a business opportunity and suggested the expansion to the shrine. The company, Nichiryoku, would develop the small adjoining plot of land and sell squares of it along with monuments to people who needed family graveyards.

We asked if only people who followed the Shinto religion are allowed to buy plots, and he said that Buddhists and even Christians were welcome as well, meaning that, while the land was owned by a Shinto organization, the graveyard was, in effect, nondenominational. That might sound mercenary or even hypocritical, since Shinto burial practices (no incense, no memorial) are different from Buddhist practices, but religion has always been fluid in Japan. Spiritual activities have more to do with circumstances than with belief systems.

Public cemeteries in Japan are nonaffiliated, of course, but an increasing number of private and religion-associated ones are opening their graves, so to speak, to anyone with cash. In fact, terms of ownership seem to be based more on financial considerations than on spiritual ones. For instance, family graves, regardless of religion, are in principle reserved only for the immediate family, meaning the head of household, his wife and his eldest male heir, who “takes over” the grave. The heir’s wife and first-born male child then can have their ashes interred in the grave, but other children have to start family graves of their own. This lineage system guarantees that the grave is maintained.

The plot is “bought” for a sum, but it is more like a charge for usage in perpetuity (eidan shiyoryo). In addition, the heir pays a yearly fee to the shrine or temple or public/private organization administering the cemetery and takes care of it himself. If fees are not paid for a set number of years and the heir cannot be contacted, the cemetery can dismantle the memorial, remove the remains to a common grave and sell the plot to someone else. That’s why so many heirs move their family graves when they themselves move to a new city.

Prices for plots in Ishihama’s new graveyard range from ¥740,000 to ¥950,000, and sizes start at .55 sq. meters. The cost includes the memorial, which explains why the cemetery, half full at the moment, looks more like a storage area for memorials than a graveyard. The yearly kanri-hi (management fee) is ¥12,000, which seems to be the going price in central Tokyo. The annual charges at a private, nonaffiliated cemetery in Machida start at ¥3,600, but that cemetery also offers a wider variety of grave options, from the tiny (.425 sq. meters: ¥770,000) to the turf-embroidered (1.25 sq. meters: ¥1,290,000).

This stamp's for you

This stamp’s for you

Public graveyards can get expensive as well. As with residential and commercial properties it’s all about location. The famous Aoyama Cemetery charges between ¥4.8 and ¥10 million per plot and the average price of a spot at Yanaka Cemetery, where the dead include some of Japan’s most famous historical figures, is about ¥3 million. Unlike a lot of new graveyards, these two have trees and flowers and benches, which is probably why there’s a waiting list.

Most for-profit cemeteries make up for this lack of pastoral filigree by offering big parking lots and facilities where visitors can have lunch and take a rest. And, of course, the farther you get from the center of town, the cheaper it gets, but you have to keep in mind that since Japanese people are cremated, regardless of religion, postage-stamp graves are the norm. If you want something to accomodate a coffin you’ll pay accordingly and probably have to look around a bit.

Of course, Ishihama Shrine gets a substantial tax-free piece of the action when Nichiryoku sells a plot. And it isn’t just Shintoism that makes a killing from the grave business. When Buddhist remains are interred, the associated temple gives the deceased a special sacred name, and the more you pay, the “better” the name. So while you still can’t take it with you, at least you can show other souls in the afterlife that you once had it.

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