Posts Tagged ‘shinkansen’

How employer transportation allowances helped create commuter hell

Tuesday, October 14th, 2014

Rush hour at Yurakucho Station

Rush hour at Yurakucho Station. By nesnad [CC-BY-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, about 86 percent of Japanese companies pay their employees’ tsukin teate, or “commuting allowance.” To many Japanese the high rate will probably be less surprising than the fact that not all companies pay it. It’s a common misconception that the allowance is somehow a legal mandate, but it isn’t.

Employers don’t have to pay their workers’ transportation expenses, but most do. In fact, as the so-called lifetime employment system that was so central to Japan’s postwar economic growth has slowly been abandoned over the past two decades, more companies have opted to either cut back on transportation allowances by limiting the amounts, or eliminating them altogether. The above figure is for regular full-time employees, and the growing trend among employers now is to hire non-regular employees, either as temps or contract workers.

But while transportation expenses are not legally mandated, they are regulated. Companies can write them off as business expenses, but only up to ¥100,000 a month per employee. If an employee’s commuting costs exceed ¥100,000 in a month, the excess is subject to tax as if it were income.

That’s a lot of money to spend on commuting, even in Japan, and, for sure, the vast majority don’t spend that much. But inadvertently or not, the tsukin teate system has contributed directly to the concentration of businesses in major cities, thus exacerbating the problem of long commutes and over-crowded public transportation.

If employees had to pay their own transportation expenses, which is the case in most developed countries, they would naturally find work that is as close to their homes as possible or move their residence to within a comfortable commuting distance of their work place.

In other words, they would balance their job particulars — working circumstances and salaries — with commuting conditions — length and cost. In any case, there would likely not be the situation that you now have in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, where commutes can take two hours one way on trains that are often over 150 percent capacity.

In its series commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Shinkansen “bullet train,” Tokyo Shimbun described how the iconic high-speed express gave rise to a “new way of working.” One article profiles a man named Akira Wachi, who has commuted from his home in Numazu, Shizuoka Prefecture, to his job in the Osaki area of Tokyo for 26 years via Shinkansen. The trip takes 90 minutes one-way. In 1976, his company, which happens to make electrical devices used in Shinkansen, transferred him from Tokyo to its Numazu factory. Six years later, thinking he would not be transferred again, he built a house. He was 32 years old. However, six years after that he was transferred, back to the company’s headquarters in Tokyo. With two children in elementary school he didn’t want to move his family again so he applied for permission to commute by Shinkansen. His request was approved.

His commute is now ¥87,600 a month, and his company bears the entire cost. (Reserved seats, like Green Cars, are not paid for by tsukin teate) In fact, he is not the only employee who commutes by Shinkansen. There are 112 other people in the head office who do so as well. The cost to the company is obviously formidable, and surely adds to the cost of its products. The various JR companies that operate the Shinkansen have encouraged commutes by adding LAN capabilities on its trains. One man, who commutes every day from his home in Shizuoka to Tokyo, says he gets a lot of work done on the train even before he arrives at his office.

The article goes on to point out that during the bubble era, when property values rose greatly, salarymen built homes farther from city centers, and could do so because their companies paid for their commutes, so in a sense tsukin teate also contributed to skyrocketing property values. As more Shinkansen lines were built, the train was used more and more as a means of commuting. Takasaki Station in Gunma, which is one hour and 11 minutes from Tokyo Station by Shinkansen, sells about 5,700 Shinkansen commuter passes per month.

In order to attract new residents to its area, the city of Saku in Nagano Prefecture offers a commuting subsidy: up to ¥25,000 a month if the new resident’s employer does not pay the full amount of the commute via the Nagano Shinkansen, which stops at Saku-Daira station. Since the monthly commuting cost from Saku-Daira to Tokyo is ¥132,830, even if the employee’s company pays the full ¥100,000, the employee will have to pay ¥7,830 a month out of pocket. And it isn’t just Tokyo. Some cities located along the relatively new Kyushu Shinkansen offer subsidies to commuters.

It’s notable that the Kyushu Shinkansen was mainly built with tourism in mind and is currently operating in the red, which brings up another by-product of the tsukin teate, which is the enormous revenues of railways in the major industrial corridor between Tokyo and Osaka. JR Tokai, which operates the highly profitable Tokaido Shinkansen between those two cities, says that revenue from monthly and multi-monthly passes increased eleven-fold between 1987, when Japan National Railways was privatized, and 2013.

On the plus side these profits have led to even better service in this corridor, but because all the money is concentrated there, regional railways are going out of business, forcing even more people to move to the cities. Many will say that’s simply the way the market works. Exactly.

Cleaning ‘angels’ reinforce positive image of Japanese workers

Friday, January 4th, 2013

Cleaning crew (in pink) waiting with the hordes at Tokyo Station for the train to arrive (photos: Jason Jenkins)

If, like thousands of others, you took the shinkansen (super express) during the recent New Year’s holiday break, when you arrived at a line terminal you likely saw uniformed cleaning crews waiting at attention for the train to stop. They would have bowed as you left the car and then scurried on board to clean it up before the passengers waiting on the platform were allowed to board. During this time of year, in particular, express trains are packed 24/7, and keeping arrivals and departures on time is the number one priority. These cleaners, on average, have only seven minutes to make the cars spic-and-span, and their methodical efficiency in getting that job done has made them heroes in the media, the newest symbols of Japan’s storied work ethic.

At least one book has been written about these train cleaners, CNN produced a special report on them and dozens of magazine articles have covered them in detail. A recent issue of Shukan Post concentrated on one of the companies, Techno Heart Tessei, which is a subsidiary of JR East. Right at the beginning of the article, the Post offers the opinion that these workers provide a positive example for any business in Japan. It then goes on to describe in detail the “shinkansen gekijo,” (bullet train theater): how the cleaners, both men and women, accomplish their “miraculous” task, which is methodical and reducible to the second. There is one cleaner per non-reserved car, two or three per reserved car.

Overhead racks are checked on the initial round while seats are reset to their original orientation and underfoot trash is quickly swept to the middle aisle. On the return round, window ledges, blinds and panes as well as folding tables are wiped; headrest covers are replaced if dirty. Then someone comes through with a broom to collect the trash. Separate staff handles toilets. All operations are checked by the supervising cleaner and cleared. Usually, these teams complete their jobs with more than a minute to spare. On the average, they clean 20 trains a shift.

Continue reading about train-cleaning "angels" →

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