According to retail marketing research firm Soft Brain Field, McDonald’s is overwhelmingly the most popular fast food in Japan, with 68 percent of survey respondents saying they patronize the American hamburger chain regularly. When asked which fast food they like the most, the answer for 33 percent is also McDonald’s, with Mos Burger second at 25 percent and Mister Donuts third at 17 percent. Forty-two percent of McDonald’s users patonize an outlet once a month, and 29 percent do so two or three times amonth, more often for lunch (43 percent) than dinner (29 percent).
Why do they prefer McDonald’s? The most common answer is that it’s inexpensive and they can order as little as possible, meaning they can go there when they’re not in the mood for a full meal.
The main underlying attraction of fast food is predictability. People who patronize national or international chains know what to expect in terms of quality and, more significantly, price. They probably think that prices are uniform from one outlet to another. The British newsweekly The Economist exploits and reinforces this perception with its occasional Big Mac Index, which analyzes relative values of national currencies by comparing the prices of Big Macs in all countries using the assumption that the value of a Big Mac is uniform.
However, if you go to McDonald’s American home page, prices are not listed, and if you do a web search you find that prices seem to vary slightly from one state or city to another, though it isn’t clear for what reason. Some people seem to think it has to do with differences in wages or local taxes or the fact that some stores are franchises while others are corporate-owned, but according to a recent article in Forbes, production costs have no impact on McDonald’s pricing, only competition. McDonald’s sets prices according to what the company reasonably believes it can get for its products in a given market at a desirable volume.
McDonald’s Japan also does not list prices on its home page, but it is fairly well known that prices differ from one outlet to another. These prices are not set by the outlets themselves. They are set by the headquarters, and on Sept. 10 the company announced that it was expanding the range of prices on its menu as well as increasing prices by as much as ¥50 per item. Since last year, the company’s profits have been dropping and it has pinpointed outlets that McDonald’s believes “can absorb price increases” without undermining its loyal customer base.
McDonald’s Japan first set up regional price schedules in 2007 by dividing Japan into six zones. Under the new system there will be nine zone categories, but these zone categories are not necessarily prefecturally-based. Urban outlets within a prefecture will have higher prices than suburban or rural outlets. Realistically, this means there will be seven different prices for a Big Mac, depending on the zone, ranging from ¥310 to ¥390, up from four different prices ranging from ¥290 to ¥340.
The highest prices will, of course, be in Tokyo. There is one zone within central Tokyo, made up of 10 outlets, that boasts the highest prices in Japan, and the overall price scheme has been formulated to support urban outlets, which serve the largest cross-section of customers. Rents and other overhead in the centers of large cities are multiplicatively greater than they are in the boonies, though prices are not multiplicatively different. The largest gap in prices between zones is ¥80, up from ¥50 before the changeover. Unaffected will be the prices for promotional loss leaders, like the “¥100 Mac” and Chicken Crisps, not to mention certain meal sets. In a sense, the countryside is helping support city folks’ fast food habits.
According to the Asahi Shimbun, the strategy is simply to maximize profits and has nothing to do with regional wage demands, local taxes or cost-of-living conditions. The company tested the new pricing system last April in a select number of outlets and determined that the number of patrons did not change when prices went up slightly. Overall, about 40 percent of the menu items will be affected by the price changes.
McDonald’s predicts that the price increases will boost its profits by 1 percent, which doesn’t sound like much but with an outfit as huge as McDonald’s that should amount to billions of yen. In any case, the lower yen has increased the price of imported ingredients, particularly meat and potatoes.