Posts Tagged ‘JR Tokai’

How employer transportation allowances helped create commuter hell

Tuesday, October 14th, 2014

Rush hour at Yurakucho Station

Rush hour at Yurakucho Station. By nesnad [CC-BY-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, about 86 percent of Japanese companies pay their employees’ tsukin teate, or “commuting allowance.” To many Japanese the high rate will probably be less surprising than the fact that not all companies pay it. It’s a common misconception that the allowance is somehow a legal mandate, but it isn’t.

Employers don’t have to pay their workers’ transportation expenses, but most do. In fact, as the so-called lifetime employment system that was so central to Japan’s postwar economic growth has slowly been abandoned over the past two decades, more companies have opted to either cut back on transportation allowances by limiting the amounts, or eliminating them altogether. The above figure is for regular full-time employees, and the growing trend among employers now is to hire non-regular employees, either as temps or contract workers.

But while transportation expenses are not legally mandated, they are regulated. Companies can write them off as business expenses, but only up to ¥100,000 a month per employee. If an employee’s commuting costs exceed ¥100,000 in a month, the excess is subject to tax as if it were income.

That’s a lot of money to spend on commuting, even in Japan, and, for sure, the vast majority don’t spend that much. But inadvertently or not, the tsukin teate system has contributed directly to the concentration of businesses in major cities, thus exacerbating the problem of long commutes and over-crowded public transportation.

If employees had to pay their own transportation expenses, which is the case in most developed countries, they would naturally find work that is as close to their homes as possible or move their residence to within a comfortable commuting distance of their work place.

In other words, they would balance their job particulars — working circumstances and salaries — with commuting conditions — length and cost. In any case, there would likely not be the situation that you now have in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, where commutes can take two hours one way on trains that are often over 150 percent capacity.

In its series commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Shinkansen “bullet train,” Tokyo Shimbun described how the iconic high-speed express gave rise to a “new way of working.” One article profiles a man named Akira Wachi, who has commuted from his home in Numazu, Shizuoka Prefecture, to his job in the Osaki area of Tokyo for 26 years via Shinkansen. The trip takes 90 minutes one-way. In 1976, his company, which happens to make electrical devices used in Shinkansen, transferred him from Tokyo to its Numazu factory. Six years later, thinking he would not be transferred again, he built a house. He was 32 years old. However, six years after that he was transferred, back to the company’s headquarters in Tokyo. With two children in elementary school he didn’t want to move his family again so he applied for permission to commute by Shinkansen. His request was approved.

His commute is now ¥87,600 a month, and his company bears the entire cost. (Reserved seats, like Green Cars, are not paid for by tsukin teate) In fact, he is not the only employee who commutes by Shinkansen. There are 112 other people in the head office who do so as well. The cost to the company is obviously formidable, and surely adds to the cost of its products. The various JR companies that operate the Shinkansen have encouraged commutes by adding LAN capabilities on its trains. One man, who commutes every day from his home in Shizuoka to Tokyo, says he gets a lot of work done on the train even before he arrives at his office.

The article goes on to point out that during the bubble era, when property values rose greatly, salarymen built homes farther from city centers, and could do so because their companies paid for their commutes, so in a sense tsukin teate also contributed to skyrocketing property values. As more Shinkansen lines were built, the train was used more and more as a means of commuting. Takasaki Station in Gunma, which is one hour and 11 minutes from Tokyo Station by Shinkansen, sells about 5,700 Shinkansen commuter passes per month.

In order to attract new residents to its area, the city of Saku in Nagano Prefecture offers a commuting subsidy: up to ¥25,000 a month if the new resident’s employer does not pay the full amount of the commute via the Nagano Shinkansen, which stops at Saku-Daira station. Since the monthly commuting cost from Saku-Daira to Tokyo is ¥132,830, even if the employee’s company pays the full ¥100,000, the employee will have to pay ¥7,830 a month out of pocket. And it isn’t just Tokyo. Some cities located along the relatively new Kyushu Shinkansen offer subsidies to commuters.

It’s notable that the Kyushu Shinkansen was mainly built with tourism in mind and is currently operating in the red, which brings up another by-product of the tsukin teate, which is the enormous revenues of railways in the major industrial corridor between Tokyo and Osaka. JR Tokai, which operates the highly profitable Tokaido Shinkansen between those two cities, says that revenue from monthly and multi-monthly passes increased eleven-fold between 1987, when Japan National Railways was privatized, and 2013.

On the plus side these profits have led to even better service in this corridor, but because all the money is concentrated there, regional railways are going out of business, forcing even more people to move to the cities. Many will say that’s simply the way the market works. Exactly.

Blood on the tracks: Who pays for deadly railway accidents?

Friday, October 18th, 2013

Don't look now

Don’t look now

One of Japan’s enduring urban legends is that railway companies demand compensation from families of people who commit suicide by throwing themselves in front of trains. Because the media doesn’t report such matters it isn’t easy to verify, but according to the Chunichi Shimbun railways “in principle” send bills to families of people who die in railroad “accidents” if the railroad is not at fault and the accident causes a delay that costs the railway money. The articles don’t say anything specific about suicides, however.

The subject of the piece is a case that was recently decided in Nagoya District Court. JR Tokai sued the family of a 91-year-old man from Obu City, Aichi Prefecture, who was hit by a train and killed while walking along the tracks of the Tokaido line in December 2007. JR Tokai was demanding ¥7.2 million from the family for losses incurred due to delays caused by the accident, which affected 27,000 passengers and 34 trains, forcing the railroad to provide alternate transportation, such as buses, to inconvenienced customers.

In court, JR Tokai’s lawyers said the company sent a bill to the family of the man “as it usually does in such matters,” but the family never responded, so they filed a lawsuit and in the end the judge awarded JR the full amount it asked for. The family will appeal.

At issue was the responsibility of the family in the actions of the old man, who suffered from dementia. Six years ago local welfare officials determined that the man required 24-hour supervision. The family placed him in an institution several days a week, but on the remaining days he was at home with his 85-year-old wife, who can mostly fend for herself. In addition, the man’s eldest son, who lives in Yokohama, set up a care system for his father that included his wife regularly traveling to Obu to help out. On the day the accident happened he was alone with his wife, who dozed off, and he wandered out of the house and to the nearest station where he somehow ended up on the tracks.

Chunichi says there is no precedent for a railway company suing over an accident caused by a person with dementia, and the lawyer for the family said that the case could have serious repercussions for families with elderly members who have serious cognitive disabilities, since it means they could be liable for all sorts of incidents, and not just those involving trains.

In court the family said that JR Tokai should bear some of the responsibility since it didn’t prevent the man from getting on the tracks after he entered the station (presumably without a ticket, which raises another question). JR countered by saying it had “fulfilled all our legal obligations” with regard to track safety, and the judge agreed, adding that it was the responsibility of the family to monitor and supervise the actions of the old man.

But if families are monetarily liable for actions carried out by members who are senile, can they also be liable for members who are suicides? So far there doesn’t seem to be a court precedent for such a situation. It seems to depend on the circumstances, suicide or not.

For instance, recently a 40-year-old woman was killed trying to help an old man who stumbled trying to cross the tracks of the JR Yokohama Line. The old man survived, but there has been no report that JR East is demanding he pay up, maybe because the media reports on the heroism of the woman drowned it out or made the company think twice about possible negative publicity if it made such a demand in this case.

Then again, earlier this week a 47-year-old man was killed while crossing the tracks of the Tobu Tojo Line in Tokyo’s Itabashi Ward. Witnesses say he was walking and absorbed in his cell phone when he was hit and didn’t notice the train, though obviously he had enough presence of mind to go through the gates, which were down. Now that guy’s family will probably receive a bill.

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