Archive for the ‘Services’ Category

Call the sitter: Parents resort to online services out of economic necessity

Monday, March 31st, 2014

Public daycare center closed for the day

Public daycare center closed for the day

A few weeks ago news outlets were all over a story about the death of an infant who had been placed in the care of a young freelance babysitter. The media was quick to blame the mother, at least by implication, since she had found the man through an Internet portal site that matched people who needed babysitters with people who provided such services. Many of these providers seem to be unlicensed, but babysitting as a job description is relatively new to Japan.

What seemed unusual in this case — though it’s actually quite common — is that the two boys the mother left with the man were watched at the man’s apartment in Saitama Prefecture, rather than at the woman’s residence in Yokohama, which is normally the way babysitting works. In the woman’s defense, some media pointed out that she had used the man as a babysitter previously and didn’t trust him, but because he used a different name this time she wasn’t aware she was leaving her children in his care.

However irresponsible the woman was in this situation, the fact is that there is an increasing number of parents who rely on such services. The Internet portal site that the woman used has 10,000 registered users and 6,000 registered sitters. The paucity of daycare services in Japan is a well-covered issue, and some parents can’t wait for the government or the private sector to rectify the situation, especially if they have infants and toddlers, which conventional daycare centers don’t usually accept anyway.

An article in the March 26 Asahi Shimbun describes a 34-year-old Tokyo mother who, like her husband, is a music teacher. Most of their lessons are at night and they have a child who is less than a year old. In addition to not accepting babies most daycare facilities usually are closed after 5 or 6 in the evening. She makes ¥1,500 an hour, and uses freelance babysitters to take care of her baby. She checked all local public facilities and none could help her, so she queried professional babysitting services, but they charged ¥2,000-¥3,000 an hour, which was more than she and her husband could afford.

Then she went to a babysitting portal site and contacted 15 freelance sitters. They met face-to-face, which cost the couple money since the sitters consider interviews work time and also charge for transportation. They checked the sitters’ credentials, if they had any, and narrowed down their list to five. They even asked these candidates to “play” with their baby just to see what that was like.

In the end they decided on three sitters whom they patronize when the need arises. The article mentions another couple who run a beauty salon where the clientele mostly shows up after 5. They have three kids, ranging in age from 2 to 14, and they use babysitters six days a week. Two of the three sitters they regularly use they found on portal sites. They pay ¥800 an hour and tell the reporter that they interviewed all three potential sitters extensively.

There are several reasons for the rise of babysitting in Japan: more parents work at night; in most areas there are no established services that take care of children in emergencies; and the demographic prominence of single-parent households, where the parent typically makes little money. About 80 local governments have set up places called ninka yakan hoikujo (authorized night-time nurseries), but despite the description only five are open 24 hours a day. The rest tend to close at around 10 p.m.

Most parents who patronize babysitters say they need 24-hour facilities that will charge according to the customer’s ability to pay. The lack of alternatives to conventional day care is probably one of the reasons the babysitting business is so loosely regulated, but in any case Asahi says the welfare ministry wants to triple the number of public night-time nursery facilities by March of next year, as well as strengthen the credential system for babysitters. A representative of a childcare business association says this will be difficult unless the government convinces the public at large that these are necessary services.

A survey conducted by the city of Yokohama found that of 31,000 respondents who have left their children with someone else overnight 85 percent counted on relatives or friends and 16 percent used outside services, either authorized facilities or babysitters (multiple answers were allowed). As it is, most facilities still don’t take children less than a year old. Seventeen percent said they have brought their child to work with them. The welfare ministry’s own survey of working parents say 55 percent have never even heard of nighttime facilities.

A more established babysitting service in Japan is so-called baby hotels, which work the same way as pet hotels: You drop your baby off and the staff takes care of him or her for as long as necessary. The welfare minister says that in 2013 there were 1,830 registered baby hotels in Japan, an increase of 121 from 2012. We looked at some web sites, and some are open 24 hours, while some have limited hours, meaning that they don’t take babies for overnight stays. You can pay by the hour (as low as ¥500) or the day, or the month.

The baby hotel business started in the 1970s and used to have a bad reputation, but there has obviously always been a need for such services. Still, it wasn’t until recently, with the greater visibility of working mothers and single parents, that such services came to the awareness of the general public.

A journalist in the magazine Aera who has covered this issue extensively says that the parents who patronize babysitting portal sites and the babysitters who offer their services on them have one thing in common: they both tend to be poorer than average. As one of the parents interviewed for the Asahi article admits, the Yokohama woman whose child died in the care of that babysitter “could have been me.”

Consumption tax hike projected to increase appeal of electronic money

Monday, March 24th, 2014

The ones: You'll be seeing more of these guys in the near future

The ones: You’ll be seeing more of these guys in the near future

Last month the national mint intensified production of ¥1 coins in anticipation of the consumption tax hike on April 1. The Ministry of Finance wants 26 million of them manufactured by the end of March, and then another 160 million after the start of the new fiscal year. Once the consumption tax goes up from 5 to 8 percent, retailers will need more small change. With a 5 percent tax, it’s relatively easy for stores to limit their use of coins since they can set prices based on multiples of 5. Maybe it’s possible to do that with multiples of 8, too, but not right away, and many fear they will not have enough ¥1 coins on hand when the tax hike goes into effect. An employee of the nationwide ¥100 shop CanDo told Asahi Shimbun, “Altough we sometimes receive ¥1 coins in payment from customers, we don’t recycle them as change to other customers, but now we’re trying to hoard as many as possible.”

If the consumption tax increase is an inconvenience to retailers, it’s even more of a pain in the neck for the government, since it costs between ¥2 and ¥3 to make a ¥1 coin, which is 100 percent aluminum. It’s the first time the mint has produced ¥1 coins on anything approaching this scale in four years. It will also produce an extra 100 million ¥5 coins, just to be safe. The government doesn’t want to relive the small change panic that happened in 1989, when the 3 percent consumption tax was first introduced. Tokyo Shimbun reports that it took the finance ministry three years to put into circulation the extra 7.5 billion ¥1 coins necessary to make the new tax workable. Then, when the consumption tax went up to 5 percent in 1997 the demand for ¥1 coins decreased. At present there are 39 billion ¥1 coins in circulation, which is 3 billion less than the peak number in circulation in 2002.

But the development that really started making small change obsolete was the introduction of electronic money in 2001 with the emergence of the Edy card system, which is now owned by the Internet mall Rakuten. According to the Bank of Japan, in 2012 electronic money was used for ¥2.5 trillion in transactions, which is three times the amount used in 2008. Understandably, the electronic money industry thinks the consumption tax hike will increase usage even more. Edy, which is accepted at 370,000 retailers and vending machines nationwide, told Asahi that it is using the opportunity of the hike to increase consumer awareness for their system, and will offer bonus points for new users who sign up. NTT DoCoMo, which offers the iD electronic money system through wallet functions in mobile phones, now accepted at 514,000 points-of-sale (POS), says it is contracting with even more retailers to install electronic readers, as well as with parking lots and restaurants.

The biggest beneficiary may be EM systems run by transportation entities. Suica and Pasmo cards, each of which are usable at 240,000 POS, offer commuters and travelers a discount. People who buy tickets for train and bus rides will pay more since transport companies will round up fares to the nearest multiple of ¥10 after April 1, while EM users will pay the exact fare. For instance, a JR fare that now costs ¥450 will increase to ¥464 with the tax hike, and that is what EM users will pay. Ticket-buyers, however, will have to pay ¥470.

The mint isn’t the only institution working overtime to compensate for the tax hike. Japan Post is rushing to print ¥2 stamps to augment ¥50 postcards and ¥80 letter stamps. For the past 20 years, all postage has been in multiples of ¥10, so there was never a need for post offices to stock ¥1 coins.

But all this printing and minting will be short-lived if the consumption tax is hiked again, to 10 percent, in the fall of 2015, which is what the government is planning to do. In that case, the tax will actually be a multiple of 10, thus making it easy for everyone, especially cashiers who now dread all those elderly people wasting their time as they dig through their purses and pockets for exact change.

Believe it or not, pay phones are here to stay

Tuesday, March 18th, 2014

Hello stranger: Pay phone in residential area of Sakae, Chiba Prefecture

Hello stranger: Pay phone in residential area of Sakae, Chiba Prefecture

Last December, during its end-of-quarter news conference, NTT announced that it would shorten the length of time for a basic call on public telephones when the consumption tax is raised from 5 to 8 percent in April. Since pay phones don’t give change and NTT discontinued its IC card service in 2006, it would have been difficult to pass the extra tax levy on to users, so the more logical scheme was to make a ¥10 call shorter. As it stands, ¥10 will get you 60 seconds of connection to a number within the same calling exchange during the day. After April it will be shortened to something like 58 seconds.

At the time it wasn’t exactly breaking news, and for obvious reasons. Who uses pay phones any more? As long as you have a cell phone you likely won’t even notice that pay phones still exist, but they do. According to a government white paper on telecommunications that came out last year and cited on the Sarayomi blog, as of March 2013 there were 210,000 pay phones in Japan. In 2002 there were 680,000. (The peak year was 1986, when there were 910,000.) That means two-thirds disappeared over an 11-year period.

Another interesting statistic is that there are more analog pay phones than digital ones. At one point around the turn of the millennium, NTT was keen on so-called IC data public phones, those gray ones with the phone jacks to which you could hook up your laptop. NTT stopped IC data service in 2006, so even if you see a gray pay phone it isn’t hooked up to a data line any more.

But even if the number of pay phones continues to dwindle, they won’t disappear entirely. They are considered necessary facilities in an emergency, so a minimum number will always remain. The problem for NTT is that very few people use them any more, and even those who do don’t use them as much as they used to (85 percent of revenues come from local calls; people who use pay phones are more conscious of the money they are spending than are cell phone users).

In other words, public phones no longer pay for themselves. They still cost money in terms of maintenance and rental for the space they occupy. In 2012, revenues from public phones stood at ¥7 billion, but the cost of keeping them running was ¥12.5 billion.

So who pays the difference? Well, you, of course. If you have a land line or a cell phone there is an item on your monthly bill called a universal service fee, which is now about ¥3 (it used to be ¥5), but that only covers half the shortfall, so some people are saying that it should be doubled, especially since the Great East Japan Earthquake, when pay phones were the only means of communication for some people.

For young women sex industry offers safety net the government doesn’t

Wednesday, February 26th, 2014

A sign teases sexual services.

A sign teases sexual services.

One of the pillars of Abenomics is getting more women to join the workforce, but since last fall, when a young woman in Osaka was found in her apartment starved to death, the media has been reporting dire statistics about poverty among women. According to government statistics, one-third of females who are productively employable and living alone make less than ¥1.14 million a year, which demarcates the government’s poverty line.

The peak year of employment in Japan was 1997, when 38.92 million men had jobs and 26.65 million women. In 2012, the number of male workers had dropped to 36 million, while that of females had declined less, to 26.5 million. In 2012, women made up 42.3 percent of the workforce, a three percentage point increase since 1980. However, the stability of that work seems to be going in the opposite direction. The number of non-regular and part-time workers is on the increase, but the number of women in this group is disproportionately larger: 57.5 percent for females to 22.1 percent for males. Without regular employment and the opportunity for periodic pay raises, these women invariably fall into a cycle of poverty from which they can never escape. The situation for single mothers is even worse: 80 percent of those who work fall below the poverty line, even with government assistance factored in.

NHK’s evening in-depth news program, “Closeup Gendai,” has aired a series of reports on poor young women. One program broadcast in late January profiled several. There was a teenage girl working at a convenience store to support her sick mother and three siblings while taking a high school equivalency course that she hopes will lead to a night school program that will earn her a license to teach nursery school, but the program will cost her ¥80,000 a month, which means she’ll have to take out a loan that will be paid back when — and if — she gets a job. There’s a woman from Aomori Prefecture who worked three jobs but still couldn’t make enough to support herself since the minimum wage in the prefecture is only ¥650, so she came to Tokyo, where the minimum wage is higher, but so are living expenses.

Experts interviewed by NHK point out that women have traditionally taken low-paying service jobs because they weren’t expected to stay on, eventually marrying and having children. But now young women don’t have as many marriage prospects due to lower incomes for marriageable men. More of them have to support themselves, but there are only these low-paying service jobs which aren’t enough to live off of. The cycle of poverty is already in gear, because these women’s parents are themselves poor, which is why they no longer live with them. When a reporter asks one woman if she hopes to have children one day, she looks at him as if he were crazy. She can’t even feed herself. How could she feed a child?

But there are women trying to do just that. One 28-year-old single mother in Hiroshima is raising a 2-year-old and a 4-year-old. She makes ¥100,000 a month and receives a child allowance of ¥40,000 from the government. She herself grew up in a poor family and had to start working when she graduated from junior high school.

But according to one program in the series there is an area of hope for such women: the sex industry (fuzokuten). Massage parlors and escort services offer not only dormitories for staff, but also daycare if the workers have young children. Want ads indicating such benefits are common, but the NHK director could only find one company that would agree to coverage. The camera shows the manager of the business talking on the phone, telling a customer that the fee is “¥19,000 for 90 minutes, if you don’t state a preference for a worker.” At this company, 40 percent of the fee goes to the company and the rest is kept by the worker. The manager says they get a lot of applicants, especially from single mothers because of the daycare. Though some businesses run their own daycare, most contract with outside services. The dorm is also a big draw, though the manager points out that “sometimes there are more staff than there are available rooms.”

One of the employees interviewed by NHK says she is 21 and has an 18-month-old daughter. She had to start working right after the girl was born, but there are no daycare facilities that accept infants. She had no choice but to work here, and in six months she has managed to save ¥700,000. She makes ¥300,000 a month. “When I’m 25 I’ll probably have to quit, and my parents don’t know I work here,” she tells the director, but by that time she hopes to have a lot of money saved. Another interviewee is in her 30s, also a single mother. She is here to look for a job. She once worked in the sex industry but quit when she got another job. Then she fell ill and applied for welfare, but was told it would take two months to check her background and than another month to process her application. She can’t wait three months.

During the seven days that NHK covered the business, it hired 15 new employees. Though the information reported on the program is sobering, several Internet commentators have pointed out that these conditions have always been the norm in the sex industry, but it’s only now that people are paying attention because of the economic situation.

 

Image via furibond

Regional bank hits on novel way to attract business

Wednesday, February 12th, 2014

Banner advertising housing loans outside branch of Keiyo Bank in Inzai

Banner advertising housing loans outside branch of Keiyo Bank in Inzai

Lottery winners who hit the jackpot are always good news stories, but the anonymous lucky individual who was the subject of reports in all major media on Feb. 3 represented a different angle on the topic. Instead of being announced by the authorities who administer the Year-end Jumbo Takarakuji lottery, the ¥700 million prize was publicized by a regional financial institution, Chiba Prefecture’s Keiyo Bank. That’s because the winner of the jackpot didn’t actually have the winning ticket in his or her possession. The bank was holding it for safe keeping.

With interests rates on time deposits being so low for so long, banks, especially smaller regional ones, have a tough time convincing people to become customers and usually resort to special premiums or deals. Keiyo’s is to offer lottery tickets as incentives to open savings accounts. For every one million yen deposited in a three-year teiki yokin (time deposit account), the depositor receives five lottery tickets per year for various drawings. Keiyo, however, only supplies the customer with the number of the ticket, not the ticket itself, which it holds on to. When the drawing is carried out the customer checks the number against the winners and if there’s a match the customer contacts the bank, which then gives the customer the ticket for him or her to cash in.

In this most recent case, the drawing was conducted in early January and the bank, knowing that one of its customers had won, waited for the customer to call. The person didn’t.   After a month, the bank finally called the individual with the happy news.

What’s most interesting about the story is that it isn’t the first time a Keiyo customer has hit it big. The bank has been offering the lottery incentive since March 2007, and in the intervening years there have been 34 ¥1 million winners, two ¥5 million winners and one ¥100 million winner. These numbers give the impression that Keiyo customers have a higher probability of winning, but according to a lottery expert interviewed by Tokyo Shimbun it’s difficult to figure the odds since the bank has never released the total number of tickets it has bought for customers over the years, but likely it isn’t that much because Keiyo is, after all, a regional bank with a limited reach.

As a reference, interest on a three-year time deposit is 0.03 percent, which means for the first year of a ¥1 million account the customer earns ¥300. That amount would buy one ¥300 lottery ticket before the government deducts its 20.315 percent tax on interest.

Side note: In December we wrote about the Post Office lottery for New Years cards. In case you still have them lying around and didn’t check the winning numbers here they are: If the last five digits on any of the cards you received are, in order, 9-7-0-8-5 then you win ¥10,000. If the last four digits are 2-3-4-4, you win a prize of some sort of regional product. And if the last two digits are either 7-2 or 7-4, you win a sheet of postage stamps. You have until six months after the Jan. 22 announcement date to claim your prizes.

Part-timers skewing employment statistics

Thursday, January 2nd, 2014

Take this job and...: Want ads targeting part-timers for specific shifts at a Chiba Prefecture supermarket

Take this job and…: Want ads targeting part-timers for specific shifts at a Chiba Prefecture supermarket

When the government determines the success of Abenomics it has to take into consideration wage inflation, not just price inflation, since real growth can’t be sustained without both. Nevertheless, all wage inflation isn’t created equal.

A recent article in the Asahi Shimbun cited results of a regular survey conducted by Recruit Jobs, an employment-related research institute. In the major metropolitan areas of Japan the average wage offered to part-time food service workers in want ads in November was ¥930, which is 1.3 percent higher than the average amount offered in November 2012. More significantly, this year-on-year increase has been continuing for 25 consecutive months, the longest stretch of increases since the institute started tracking such numbers in 2007.

The standard wage in the restaurant industry is relatively low to begin with, and right now there is a shortage of help nationwide, so Recruit says employers are being forced to offer more money. One example cited by Asahi is a new mall that just opened in Makuhari, Chiba Prefecture, which contains a number of eating establishments, most of which belong to chain operations. Starting wages at these restaurants is between ¥1,200 and ¥1,300 an hour, which is even higher than they are in Tokyo. According to an official at Four Seeds, a company that owns several restaurant chains, more large retail facilities, such as shopping malls, are being built in an around major metropolitan areas, so there is greater demand for food service workers.

However, these numbers are misleading in terms of indicating whether or not the economy as a whole is on the mend. For one thing, the labor ministry says that just because part-time wages in major cities are going up, it doesn’t mean they’re rising for the rest of Japan.

The ministry found that in October, the average monthly take-home for “short-hour part-timers” was ¥94,634, which is 0.4 percent lower than it was in October 2012, and marked five straight months of year-on-year declines. And if the average pay for a part-timer in this industry in 2010 was set at 100, then the salary this year is 98.7.

Despite the fact that the national minimum wage was raised recently, average part-time income is dropping, mainly because companies are hiring more people to work short hours. For instance, the coffee shop chain Pronto targets housewives (which they call “mistresses”) in their 30s and 40s with the promise that they don’t have to work weekends and holidays. In addition, they can take off up to nine full weeks, without pay, of course, in a given six-month period. These women don’t work more than 20 hours a week, and the company likes it because under these conditions they can easily find women willing to work for low pay at short notice.

This trend is also prevalent in the supermarket industry, where employers pay housewives slightly more to work in the morning and the evenings since most housewives prefer only working in the afternoon when they don’t have household responsibilities.

In Tokyo, many food service companies offer higher wages only for peak demand periods to fill short-term staffing shortages. Other times they offer less money. The turnover is high, but this strategy allows the companies more options in controlling personnel costs on a month-to-month basis.

The point is that these workers supposedly want to work shorter hours, and the more people there are working shorter hours for slightly more pay, the more the statistics will reflect higher wages overall, but in truth the pay is just being distributed among more people, meaning per capita wages aren’t going up at all.

Of course, food services is traditionally considered an entry-level or temporary job, not a career track job, but as manufacturing continues to shift overseas, it is an industry that will become more vital as an employer. It’s not quite at the stage that it is in the U.S., where many fast food workers have to support families on what they make, but it might be getting there.

Rental video stores ponder their reason for existing

Sunday, December 22nd, 2013

Many happy returns: Prepaid mailer for Rakuten DVDs

Many happy returns: Prepaid mailer for Rakuten DVDs

It’s coming up to that time of year again, the long post-Christmas New Years break when days not spent in the company of relatives you can’t stand are wiled away in front of the television airing programs you can’t stand even more. Traditionally, that makes it one of the biggest seasons for the rental video business; or, at least, it used to. The industry has been in a progressive slump since it peaked more than a decade ago.

According to industry group Japan Video Software Association, the number of stores in Japan peaked in 1990, when it stood at 13,529. In 2012 there were only 3,648, a drop of three-fourths. In terms of revenues the biggest year for rental videos was 2004, when the industry took in ¥258.4 billion. It has decreased by about ¥100 billion since then.

A recent article in the Mainichi Shimbun quoted a 41-year-old owner of a rental video store in Yokohama who said that he used to run two other shops but had to close both. There’s not enough demand for him to be able to afford all the new movies coming out on DVD or Blu-Ray, and it’s new titles that have driven rentals in the past. He remembers the days when he could charge ¥1,000 for a new movie for two days, but since then prices have dropped drastically, mainly due to competition from major national chains.

The main culprit, of course, is the march of technology. Though on-demand streaming and downloading isn’t as widespread in Japan as it is in the U.S., the big three mobile phone carriers have started offering movies that can be streamed on TV sets at home. The number of titles right now is only about 7,000, but even at ¥500 per title, it beats trudging down to the local rental store, if one actually exists within trudging distance.

The problem with on-demand is that accessing such services requires a certain level of computer literacy that tends to decline the older the customer is. This is always a problem for IT service companies but may be the last bastion of revenue for rental video stores. An editor from the industry magazine Video Insider Japan told Mainichi that the strategy from now on will be for video stores to target “customers in their 60s and 70s.”

But only the major chains can afford to do that, apparently. Between them, Tsutaya and GEO account for 70 percent of all the rental video stores in Japan, and because they can afford to buy as many new titles as they want, they price smaller stores out of business. Tsutaya, however, is a franchise operation, and individual owners may find it harder to compete against GEO outlets, which are company owned. Since Tsutaya franchise owners can set their own prices, some are being forced to match GEO’s in order to compete, while others are keeping prices higher. It all depends on location. Also, Tsutaya has made exclusive deals with some distributors that give them a distinct advantage. For a time, they were the only company that had permission to rent out “The Amazing Spider-Man.”

However, in order to attract this older cohort that is now the main demographic for rental videos, chain stores have to go to them rather than the other way around. Both Tsutaya and GEO offer plans wherein customers pay a set monthly fee for a certain number of disks that are delivered directly to their homes. This system has been available for about 10 years, and the only real innovative change has been the addition of so-called spot rentals, meaning members can order videos a la carte without having to sign up for a plan. Right now, GEO is offering some titles for as low as ¥80, with Tsutaya offering ¥100 (both for limited times). What’s interesting about spot rentals is that, depending on which videos you rent and how many, they can be cheaper than monthly plans.

GEO has three monthly plans. The standard plan is ¥945 for four DVDs. After that there’s an 8-disc plan for a little less than ¥2,000, and a 16-disc plan for a bit less than ¥4,000. When you sign up for a plan you get the first month free, but the real difference is in the delivery fee. Whether your order is a spot rental or part of a monthly plan, the fee is ¥300 for up to seven discs at a time. The fee is ¥500 for orders of 8-16 disks. Regardless of the size of the order, the time limit is 10 days from the day the customer receives the disks. As with all such home delivery systems, the company includes a prepaid envelope for returning the discs. However, it’s important to note that GEO does not charge a late fee for people who belong to monthly plans. Late fees for spot rentals are ¥157 a day.

But GEO and Tsutaya now have to contend with an upstart: Rakuten. The Internet mall’s inventory isn’t as deep or wide as the other two companies, but its spot rental system is in many ways cheaper and more amenable to the way most people rent videos. Rakuten also charges ¥300 for delivery fee, but you can only request up to two discs per order. After that the delivery fee increases in increments of ¥200. In that regard, GEO would seem to have the advantage, but actually not. Brand new titles are priced the same as GEO’s, around ¥300, but older titles are usually priced at around ¥50. And titles that are more than, say, two years old can be as cheap as ¥10 or even ¥5.

Like GEO, the time limit for a Rakuten spot rental is 10 days, but if you see two discs over the course of two days you return the discs and can immediately order two more. They usually arrive within a day of placing the order. For sure, the delivery fee for GEO is cheaper, but if you took full advantage of the fee and ordered 7 discs, you’d still have to watch all of them in less than 10 days, and even at ¥80 per disc, they aren’t as cheap as Rakuten’s.

Rakuten’s system is especially rational if you want to watch full seasons of TV series. Last month we watched the second season of “Homeland,” which, because it’s relatively new, cost ¥280 per disc, with two episodes per DVD. But we also went through the first two seasons of “Mad Men,” which were only ¥5-¥10 per disc, also with 2-3 episodes per disc. And they always had the DVDs we wanted in stock. It beats trudging down to the rental video store.

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