A few weeks ago we were waiting at a checkout counter in an Aeon supermarket and placed in the basket one of those laminated cards that say you don’t need a shopping bag. When our turn came the cashier gave us a funny look and asked us if we really needed a bag for one item. We then read the card, which said that you should put it in your basket if you want a shopping bag.
We made a false assumption because we don’t usually shop at Aeon. The supermarket we normally patronize asks you to indicate if you don’t want a bag, and they’ll knock ¥2 off the total if you do. Apparently, that practice is now giving way to the opposite tactic: You have to tell the cashier if you want a bag, in which case they will charge you for it.
Aeon, Japan’s biggest supermarket chain, started this practice way back in 2007, and as of Nov. 1 every outlet follows the policy, which is ¥5 for an extra large bag and ¥3 for a large bag. Even Aeon’s discount food chain, MaxValu, has adopted the charge-for-bags policy. For that matter, so has every other major supermarket chain. Ito Yokado charges ¥2 per bag, Uny ¥5, Seiyu ¥2 for a medium and ¥3 for a large, and Daiei ¥3 to ¥5, depending on the size.
According to Sankei Shimbun, Aeon donates all the money it collects for bags to various environmental causes, while Uny donates half the money it collects. Saving the environment is what bag reduction is all about, though the government stresses it from a different angle than you might think. A study sponsored by the Environmental Ministry looked at the shopping bag problem in terms of resources. One bag requires 18.3 ml of oil and Japan uses 30.5 billion shopping bags a year, which is the equivalent of more than 600,000 kiloliters of oil.
The study also calculates that 967 shopping bags are given away every second in Japan, or the equivalent of 8.82 two-liter PET bottles of oil. The study says that shopping bags waste precious resources, which is of course a relevant situation in resource-starved Japan, though in most other countries the plastic bag problem is associated with pollution.
The main reason bags aren’t considered a waste problem in Japan is that they are routinely incinerated here. In America plastics generally are not burned, which is why the campaign against shopping bags is older, since most end up as landfill. Then again, more European countries are starting to burn plastic refuse, but they are also more strict about shopping bags. In Ireland, for example, a shopping bag will cost you ¥15, which is why there are almost none in Ireland any more.
Refuse officials in Japan say there is no problem with burning plastic. Dioxin emissions are almost non-existent because Japanese incinerators use very high temperatures, an assertion some environmentalists are skeptical of. But in any case, people still use shopping bags and plastic bags mandated by local governments to dispose of household waste, and the real problem with incineration isn’t plastic but organic waste and kitchen scraps, which tend to be wet and thus require a lot more heat to burn up.
So while the bags themselves may not be a problem, what they contain is. San Francisco realized this and went beyond limiting plastic bags, requiring residents to dispose of organic waste in composting boxes, and it’s been a success.
So while every reduction helps, environmentalists belief that only limiting shopping bag usage isn’t enough. One person on the Internet (scroll down to commenter qqme9839) calculated that in 2009 burning garbage accounted for only 3 percent of all CO2 emissions. And since plastic constituted 45 percent of the garbage being burned, it created only 1.35 percent of the CO2 that was emitted that year. And since production of shopping bags in 2009 accounted for 0.55 percent of all discarded plastic by weight, that means plastic bags’ contribution to CO2 was 0.075 percent. Reducing people’s reliance on shopping bags is a good thing, but it’s not the only thing.