Archive for the ‘Culture’ Category

Postal employees carry extra burden during the holiday season

Thursday, December 5th, 2013

Until around 2000, the custom of sending nengajo, or New Years greetings, to friends, family and business associates was widespread in Japan, but since then it has become less so. According to Japan Post, mail carriers delivered 3.7 billion New Years cards in 1999. That number dropped to 2.6 billion in 2012. More significantly for JP, which is in the process of being privatized, the organization sold 4.2 billion cards in 1999 and 3.3 billion in 2012.

Hard sell: New Years postcard display in Kyobashi post office

Hard sell: New Years postcard display in Kyobashi post office

The 22 percent drop in sales shows how much business JP has lost over the last 13 years, since nengajo account for 10 percent of JP’s total postal-related business. In fact, JP depends on sales of New Years cards to make up for the loss in other areas. But look at that other statistic, the one showing how many cards were actually sold, and a question has to arise in your mind: Why is there such a huge gap between the number of nengajo sold and the number delivered? What happened to the 700 million cards that were sold but not delivered in 2012?

It’s a question Asahi Shimbun attempted to answer in a recent article about the practice known as jibaku eigyo (suicide bomber sales), which many employees of Japan Post resort to at this time of year. One of the reasons sales of New Years postcards (nenga-hagaki) is so high is that almost all employees of the postal service sell them. They have quotas, and while there are no written stipulations that require employees to meet their numbers, it’s tacitly understood that their future in the company is jeopardized if they don’t.

Many employees sell cards they can’t otherwise sell to kinken resellers, those storefront operations that buy things like railway tickets and store coupons and then resell them at prices slightly below their face value.

For years postal employees have dumped their remaining postcards at kinken shops rather than return them to their supervisors. And since they receive less than the ¥50 face value for each card, the employees lose money, because they don’t earn commissions from the cards. They have to return to JP ¥50 for each card they sell.

JP frowns on the practice, not because it’s illegal, but because it looks bad, especially since JP plans to become a listed company sometime in the near future. A public relations person told the Asahi that the company is “aware” that many employees sell their unsold postcards to resellers, as well as through Internet auction sites, and have deemed such practices “improper.”

This year they plan to crack down on these practices, which shouldn’t be too hard. Every nenga-hagaki has a lottery number printed on it. After New Years JP conducts a drawing and people who have received postcards with winning numbers can redeem them for prizes (a custom that will be covered in a future Yen for Living post). All a supervisor has to do is record the lot numbers of the postcards he or she assigns to an employee. If any of those cards end up in kinken shops, JP will know who sold them.

Some employees end up spending even more money trying to confound this countermeasure. Asahi talked to one non-regular mail carrier from Central Japan who traveled all the way to Tokyo with more than 3,000 cards to sell them to a kinken shop in the capital, because he thinks the chances of him getting caught will be less. Also, kinken shops in Tokyo pay more for nenga-hagaki than shops in the Chubu region. Still, even after he sells them he stands to lose ¥40,000 on the deal, and that doesn’t even count the cost of his train ticket. A Nagasaki-based employee sent 4,000 cards via express package delivery to a kinken shop in Hokkaido, thinking it was far enough away to be safe.

The size of the quota depends on the job description of the worker: Quotas are higher for regular employees than they are for non-regular and part-time employees, but since non-regular salaries are so much lower than those of regulars, the burden may be greater. Since they are employed on a semi-annual contract basis, many non-regulars believe that their contracts won’t be renewed if they fail to meet their quotas.

Supervisors have higher quotas than their subordinates, but supervisors are usually older employees who already have a solid base of established customers, which are mostly friends and relatives anyway. Also, supervisors have time to carry out sales activities in front of their offices or in public places during normal work hours. Mail carriers are always making deliveries, so they have to sell their cards on their own time. Some quotas seem ridiculously difficult to fulfill.

According to an internal document that Asahi got ahold of, each regular mail carrier in Saitama City is required to sell 7,000 cards a season, which starts on Nov. 1 with a media blitz. The section chief in a Western Japan branch has to sell 13,500. For non-regulars, the burden is anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 cards, usually depending on their respective branches’ sales figures in the past. Employees told Asahi of how they were browbeaten by supervisors to sell more cards, with one saying that he was accused by his boss of “robbing JP” because he hadn’t sold enough. Japan Post has said that employees should report supervisors who exert “unfair pressure” on them to sell cards, but it seems no one has done so.

Some quit, while many others simply dump the unsold cards in their closets and absorb the loss, which is why the holidays are anything but happy for postal employees. In any case, nobody the Asahi talked to said they sold all of their cards. When the reporter asked an officer of one of the labor unions that represent postal workers if the union isn’t doing anything to counteract the quota system, he replied somewhat bizarrely that JP has to maintain sales in order to survive.

Though sales quotas have always been part of postal employees’ jobs, they used to be fairly low and manageable. But since JP’s privatization bid the quotas have skyrocketed, mainly because people aren’t sending as many cards as they used to.

In a survey conducted by Internet news service J-cast, only 58 percent of respondents said they planned to send out nengajo this year, with 19 percent saying they would send more than a hundred cards, 22 percent sending out 50-100 cards, and 36 percent sending out less than 50. Twenty percent said they had no plans to send cards at all this year.

Where there’s a will: Attitudes toward inheritance change

Wednesday, October 2nd, 2013

Who'll be the next in line?

Who’ll be the next in line?

About a million people die every year in Japan, and 10 percent of them leave wills (yuigonsho). That’s a smaller portion than in the English-speaking West — the BBC says about a third of British adults have wills and USA Today reports 59 percent of American baby boomers have written them — but it’s still larger than other Asian countries (about 1 percent in South Korea) and the number is growing every year.

Legal experts advocate wills as the only effective means of properly disposing of one’s assets after death, but in Japan they’ve traditionally been seen as disruptive. Japanese law outlines methods of inheritance and even stipulates shares for specific family relationships. But family ties have been strained in recent decades owing to shifting social demographics and economic trends. A recent article in the Asahi Shimbun reports that more and more people are dying without any clear beneficiaries. In 2012, ¥37.5 billion left behind by people who died was taken by the government because the deceased had no family willing to claim the body and the person’s property. According to the Supreme Court, this amount is three times what it was a decade ago.

When a person dies without spouses or children, or when those heirs have forfeited their right to the deceased’s assets, the proper court appoints an administrator to dispose of the estate. If the deceased had debts, the administrator repays them out of the available assets. If the deceased had a caregiver, the administrator may offer the person part of those assets. But for the most part the unclaimed money and proceeds from property goes to the central government.

One Yokohama lawyer in the Asahi article talks about his experiences as an administrator, which starts with going to the home of a person who has just died and “cleaning up.” He says he often finds large amounts of cash hidden behind or inside furniture, and now conducts seminars where he tells middle aged and older people about the importance of wills, partly as a means of showing their gratitude to those who helped them in life, regardless of whether or not those people are relatives. When the reporter talks to people who attend the lawyer’s seminar, some admit to having no contact with family and one says he feels compelled to draw up a will because he’s afraid of what might happen to his legacy if it all goes to his irresponsible son.

People in the West who don’t write wills are usually intimidated by the cost of lawyers or just plain scared of thinking about death. In Japan, while speaking of death is still a taboo for most people, the scarcity of wills can mainly be attributed to ignorance. The lawyer in the Asahi article implies that the authorities don’t promote wills because they make money when people die without heirs.

A recent trend that has boosted the status of wills is “ending notes.” Popularized by a hit 2011 documentary about a dying man’s last days, ending notes are books that help people think about their deaths. They explain different processes and often have diary-like features so that readers can write down their thoughts about death and what they want in terms of late-term care, a funeral and the disposal of their remains.

Ending notes actually compel readers to think about their lives right now by making them face the inevitability of death, and so rather than push away such thoughts they force the reader to consider measures such as DNR (do not resuscitate) declarations and last wills and testaments. Ending notes have also been commercialized to a certain extent, and some non-profit groups now hold seminars on the subject of shukatsu (final activities). Funeral homes participate in ending note plans and some banks even have programs to help people think about what they want to do with their assets after they die. According to a survey of people over 60 conducted by Research Bank, 49 percent said they wanted to write ending notes.

But ending note diaries are not legal documents. A will needs to be notarized if it is to hold up in court. One reason wills were previously unpopular in Japan is that when they were contested by family members, courts often sided with the plaintiffs, but that isn’t necessarily the case any more. According to one will-writing website, 7,767 wills were notarized in 1966. The number in 2009 was 76,436. Moreover, in 1985, Japanese courts heard 2,661 inheritance-related lawsuits. That number increased to 9,800 by 2008, and in the same year family courts nationwide received 154,160 requests for advice with regard to inheritance problems. More than 70 percent of all legal disputes over inheritance involve assets of more than ¥50 million. Obviously, you can’t take it with you, but older Japanese are now wising up to the fact that they don’t have to let it pass on to people they can’t stand.

Young women’s life preferences acknowledge workplace reality

Friday, September 27th, 2013

Preference or default?

Preference or default?

Social media has been buzzing about the results of a survey released this week by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The survey was carried out last March among men and women, both single and married, between the ages of 15 and 39. The results that provoked the most discussion had to do with attitudes toward marriage, or, more precisely, a woman’s role in a marriage.

When asked if they want to be full-time homemakers, 34.2 percent of the female respondents said “yes” or “probably.” And while more women, 38.5 percent to be exact, said they didn’t want to be homemakers, the portion who said they did was apparently higher than people expected, especially now that the government is pushing an agenda to make it easier for women to join the workforce and contribute more directly to the economy.

Some people are saying that these results indicate a regressive attitude among women, but it’s impossible to say from the results that the women who want to be homemakers are being guided by some kind of cultural gender identification.

When men were asked in the survey if they wanted their wives to be homemakers, 19.3 percent said “yes” or “probably,” which implies that the other four-fifths want their wives to work. That’s because they know that a single income isn’t enough any more to support a household, especially one that does or will someday include children.

When the women were asked how much income they thought their husbands should make a month, 40.8 percent said ¥200,000-¥300,000, 24.8 percent said ¥300,000-¥400,000 and a mere 4.2 percent said “it doesn’t matter.” So much for marrying for love.

A more likely reason for this desire to stay at home is a perceived understanding of workplace norms, something the labor ministry didn’t ask about. In a different survey conducted by the Japan Management Association, young men (751) and women (249) already in the workforce were asked if they aspired to be leaders among their colleagues. Of the female respondents, 81 percent said they would rather be “supportive.”

One of the more pressing issues in Japan is the paucity of women managers, a situation that is blamed on implacable male dominance in the workplace. The association analyzes this result as meaning that women value their private lives over their careers. In other words, they don’t think they can raise children or have families if they are in leadership positions. And, in fact, this is still a widely held belief.

The sky becomes less of a limit for cabin attendants (unless you’re a man)

Friday, August 23rd, 2013

Screen shot of ANA's new Airline School, which opens in October

Screen shot of ANA’s new Airline School, which opens in October

All Nippon Airways just announced a new hiring policy for cabin attendants (CA). Starting next year, new CAs will be full-time regular employees of the company. Since 1995, CAs at the company were hired as contract workers who could opt to become regular employees after three years. The reason for the change is tougher competition from low-cost carriers (LCCs). ANA says in order to ensure the best service for their patrons they want to offer flight attendants better employment security. Currently, ANA employs about 6,000 CAs, 1,600 of which are contract workers. Next year, if these 1,600 want to become regular employees they can. The company plans to hire 450 new CAs in 2014.

The contract system was adopted by both ANA and Japan Airlines (JAL) in the same year, when the bubble economy had ended and Japan was entering its long period of sluggish growth. The object was to keep personnel costs in check. JAL says it has no intention of abandoning its contract work system “for the time being.” Twenty percent of its 3,800 Japanese CAs are contract workers. LCCs Peach and Jetstar only hire CAs as contract workers, while Skymark offers its contract CAs regular employment after one year. Though ANA’s policy change means its personnel costs will rise, the company thinks it can offset these expenses with reduced training costs.

Presently, when an ANA CA’s contract expires, she is offered full-time employment, but she can also opt for another 3-year contract. Over the years, 80 percent of ANA’s CAs chose regular employment. Contract workers are paid by the hour, and during the initial training period the wage is less than ¥1,000. That goes up to about ¥1,200 an hour until the end of the contract. JAL pays even less, about ¥1,100. Typically, a cabin attendant earns about ¥2 million a year while she is a contract worker, which isn’t much but CAs, even contractors, have some perks, like access to inexpensive company housing. However, the difference between contract workers and regular workers is striking. In 2001, the average yearly pay for CAs in Japan was ¥6.79 million, reflecting the fact that their ranks were still dominated by full-time regular employees. By 2011 the average salary had dropped to ¥3.85 million, reflecting the dominance of contract workers and newer regular employees rather than veterans who make more due to seniority. Last year it was about ¥4.8 million.

Another factor that influences pay is employment longevity. On average, Japanese CAs remain in the business for 7.4 years, and their average age is 31.2. In the past, it was the most coveted job for women in Japan, though not necessarily for career reasons. It was considered a glamorous occupation during a time when Japan was still isolated from the world, and thus offered women the only chance for overseas travel. (It was also the best way to put one’s English language skills to use. At one time, all English conversation schools has special classes for aspiring flight attendants.) Also, it was considered the best way to find a good husband, since sutchi (stewardesses) were also coveted as wives by eligible bachelors.

It was something of a joke in the 60s and 70s that professional baseball players and sumo wrestlers married either TV announcers or JAL cabin attendants. That may explain why the average age remains low: few CAs continued to work after they married, and if they did they usually tried to get transferred to the position of “ground hostess,” which is even more glamorous since there are so few of them. Also, while both regular employees and contract workers can take maternity leave, only regular employees can ask for shorter hours after they return to work. Tokyo Shimbun says that 10 percent of contract workers quit before their option to become regular employees comes up and one of the main reasons is that they become pregnant.

There’s little doubt that management has a certain image of what CAs should be. Only 1 percent of CAs in Japanese airlines are men. Though it’s against the law to discriminate in terms of gender, it seems obvious that airlines hire women predominately, and Japanese men who want to become CAs know this. According to an article in Newsweek, European and Middle Eastern airlines actively recruit Japanese male cabin attendants. Of the Japanese CAs who work for European and Middle Eastern airlines, 10 percent are men. In Asia, the portion is the same as it is in Japan.

Retailers and restaurants get slippery with unagi prices

Tuesday, July 16th, 2013

July 22 is doyo no ushi no hi — day of the ox.” It is not a holiday to mark the cultural contributions of bovine, but rather a reminder that there are 18 more days until a seasonal change, during which falls the day of the ox — one of the signs of the Chinese zodiac. Traditionally in Japan people eat grilled eel (unagi), on this day, because it is believed that eel strengthens physical stamina during the hottest days of summer. But this year foodies and purveyors of unagi are faced with a problem, since eel in the wild is becoming increasingly scarce and may soon end up on a list of endangered species. The fisheries agency reports that the amount of eel fry bought by wholesalers in Japan this year has averaged 25 percent less than last year.

Yield to eel: Banners promoting unadon outside Sukiya

Yield to eel: Banners promoting unadon outside Sukiya

So it was definitely surprising when Daiei, one of Japan’s major supermarket chains, announced on July 11 that it would be selling packaged unagi kabayaki (grilled eel) in its stores for 20 percent less than last summer’s price on July 13-15 and July 20-22. According to Asahi Shimbun the price of unagi fry is now as much as 6.5 times what it was in 2009.

In most retail outlets, the price of prepared grilled eel is 26 percent higher than it was last summer. Usually, unagi that goes on sale in July is bought by Daiei in bulk sometime after January of the same year. It is then processed and frozen by a contractor. However, anticipating the rise in prices Daiei bought its unagi last fall and asked its contractor to carry out processing and freezing “when it had the time to do so,” thus saving money. Also, Daiei usually buys unagi for lunch boxes and unagi for packaged sushi separately, but this year they bought unagi for both at the same time in bulk, saving even more money.

But the real reason they can charge less is because they want to. Daiei admits that it will lose money during these two three-day periods by selling unagi kabayaki for 20 percent less. The supermarket is using unagi as a loss leader, a means of getting customers into its stores, where they will buy other things. And it seems to be working. Daiei started accepting pre-orders last month. Another market chain, Seiyu, announced that despite increases in wholesale prices, it will sell domestic unagi kabayaki at the same price as last summer: ¥1,470 for 140 grams. Seiyu expects sales to be 10 percent higher than last year.

Restaurants, on the other hand, seem to have no choice but to raise prices, but the amount of increase depends on the type of eatery. Asahi says that Tokyo ryotei — upscale, reservation-only restaurants — have increased unagi dishes by about ¥400 since last year, and famous restaurants that specialize in unagi have raised prices by as much as ¥1,000 per dish.

However, chain restaurants are trying to keep the increase to a minimum. Many sushi chains that usually charge ¥100 per plate serve unaju (grilled eel over rice) in the summertime, though usually only for takeout. One of these chains, Kura Sushi, is advertising unadon (eel over rice in a bowl) for only ¥598. That’s pretty cheap compared to gyudon (beef bowl) chains, which also do good business with unadon in the summer. Sukiya, the biggest gyudon chain, is selling unadon for ¥780, while Yoshinoya has increased its eel bowl ¥30 since last summer to ¥680. In 2010 it was only ¥500. Both Sukiya and Yoshinoya buy their unagi from China, but insist that they supervise the raising and harvest themselves, without relying on middlemen, to ensure quality.

Summer travel biz shows signs of recovery

Friday, July 12th, 2013

So close, and so far away

So close, and so far away

According to statistics released by Japan Travel Bureau on July 3, overseas travel this summer is projected to be up by 5.8 percent from last year, though continued sour relations with China and South Korea have seen fewer Japanese travelers this year to those two destinations. Another important consideration that doesn’t seem to have had a bad effect is the higher value of the dollar and other currencies against the yen. In terms of numbers, 2.6 million have reservations to travel overseas between July 15 and Aug. 31. The main bright spot is Europe, which will see a 15 percent boost in Japanese visitors as opposed to 2012. Also, Southeast Asia seems to be maintaining its popularity as a vacation spot. The average amount of money being spent per person on foreign travel this summer is ¥243,000, which is ¥11,800 more than was spent in 2012.

In addition, 76.2 million people have domestic travel plans this summer that involve more than one night away from home, which is the highest number since 2000. Even better, the average amount of money spent per person for these trips is ¥35,010, or ¥1,280 more than last summer. Several circumstances are credited with pushing up these numbers: the 30th anniversary of Tokyo Disney Resort; renovations to Ise Shrine in Mie Prefecture and Izumo Shrine in Shimane Prefecture; and Mount Fuji’s recent listing as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site and the intense media coverage that preceded it.

Continue reading about the recovery of tourism in Japan →

Japan still paying for war sins through international copyrights

Thursday, February 14th, 2013

A recent feature in the Tokyo Shimbun looked into a conundrum that few people know about. Fifty-two years after his death, Ernest Hemingway remains one of the most popular novelists on the planet. Translated into dozens of languages, his books continue to sell well. Whether those works are now in the public domain depends on each individual country’s copyright laws. In Japan, the copyright for written works is protected for 50 years after an author’s death, but if you look at Hemingway’s individual novels there’s something strange. “The Old Man and the Sea,” which was published in 1952, is now a public domain work in Japan, but “For Whom the Bell Tolls,” published in 1940, is not, and it won’t be until 2022.

Get thee to a library: Cover of Japanese translation of “For Whom the Bell Tolls”

The reason for this discrepancy is a term included in the San Francisco Peace Treaty that officially ended the Pacific War when it was signed in 1951. This term in Japanese is called senji kasan, which in the body of the treaty is explained as a “wartime add-on to the protection period” of a particular work’s copyright. In other words, during the war, Japanese users of copyrighted works from the 15 countries aligned with the Allied cause did not pay fees and royalties to those copyright holders, so the period of that non-payment, from the declaration of war in 1941 to the signing of the San Francisco treaty, was added on to the regular copyright protection period in order to collect fees “retroactively.” Moreover, this add-on period was calculated in days, since each of the fifteen countries concluded the treaty at different times. For instance, Lebanon didn’t sign until Jan. 17, 1954, which means the add-on was 4,413 days.

What’s unique about senji kasan is that it only applies to Japan. The other two Axis powers, Germany and Italy, were not obligated to implement the add-on. Actually, Italy was supposed to have been obligated, albeit for only five years, but the country’s government negotiated with each of the Allied countries and eventually had the protection extension cancelled in 1993 when the European Union was being formed. France also had a similar extension condition domestically, since for much of the war it was occupied by the Nazis, but it expired a long time ago. According to Tokyo Shimbun, copyright experts tend to agree that the SF treaty extension is discriminatory and is merely a lingering remnant of the Allies’ will to punish Japan. But the war ended in 1945. Isn’t it about time the extension was rescinded?

As it turns out, the problem is not really the countries who benefit from this extension. According to one expert interviewed in the article, the problem is that the Japanese government “accepted the extension as punishment, a term of surrender,” and thus feels an obligation to pay, even now. None of the Japanese administrations that have been in power for the past 50 years even bothered to address the issue. It is simply a matter of laziness. If Japan wanted to get rid of the extension it would be relatively easy but time-consuming, since it would entail negotiations with each of the fifteen countries that signed the treaty. Some have said that the controversial Trans-Pacific Partnership talks provides a perfect venue for discussing the matter.

Then again, there are some powerful parties in Japan who benefit from the extension, such as the Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers, which collects the royalties for foreign copyright holders. (more…)

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